Migration by Boat: Discourses of Trauma, Exclusion, and Survival Edited by Lynda Mannik

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Veronica Fynn Bruey


During the First World War, an estimated 10 million people, mostly in Europe, were displaced internally and internationally. With the ‘free to migrate concept’, refugees’ resettlement across Europe was considered peaceful, as hospitable host nations received people fleeing from war and violence. By the Second World War, the idea of ‘free migration’ of refugees was discarded, as approximately 11-20 million people, mostly in Europe, fled genocide, ethnic cleansing, and violent military attacks. The hatred for displaced peoples, which was prompted by Nazi Germany’s extermination of six million Jews, garnered enough sympathy to resettle those fleeing into the United States and other countries in Europe. By the end of the 1980s, BS Chimni argues that refugee flows in Europe and those from the Global South were perceived as different – a concept he terms ‘The Myth of Difference’. The Myth Of Difference is apparent in the prejudice that guided the conceptual framework of the international refugee law regime, where displaced peoples outside of Europe were blatantly excluded from the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1951.

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